Young children undergoing trans-thoracic echocardiography were sedated with intranasal Dexmedetomidine 2mcg/kg plus Ketamine 1mg/kg. Sedation was successful in 96%, onset being about 16 minutes. Cyanotic heart disease, history of sedation failure, history of congenital heart disease surgery, and fever were independent risk factors for sedation failure. There were no serious adverse cardiorespiratory side effects.
This non-opioid combination was found to be effective with an acceptable safety profile.