A summary of risk factors :- genetic, age (young), female, pain sensitivity (like fibromyalgia), psychosocial (e.g. anxiety, depression, late return to work), pre-op pain, acute post-op pain, surgery/nerve injury.
The hypothesis is if we can identify and manage and treat promptly, we may prevent transition to chronic pain. A frequent problem is determining if these are just markers for chronic pain development or risk factors causally related to future pain. Nonetheless multimodal analgesia is the least we can do.